la maturation et l’expansion du bouddhisme

la maturation et l’expansion du bouddhisme dans Non classé gif52

Après la mort du bouddha, il semble bien que les membres de la sangha ont voulu organiser la doctrine en un tout systématique, créant ainsi la troisième des trois « corbeilles », l’abhidharma pitaka, qui compile les enseignements du Bouddha. Conscients d’avoir eu à surmonter une première crise, les moines de la sangha ont ainsi voulu définir de manière systématique les détails de la voie menant à l’éveil, la « voie de l’ Arhat. L’arhat représente la perfection menant à l’éveil, et ce au moins jusqu’à l’apparition du Grand Véhicule. L’idéal de l’arhat continue de marquer la vie spirituelle du Sri Lanka et des autres pays d’Asie du sud-est attachés à la tradition du Petit Véhicule.

Le Bouddha est souvent considéré comme un arhat, à la différence près qu’il fut le premier, le premier à avoir découvert l’éveil et à être sorti du cycle des renaissances. C’est pourquoi les autres arhats qui viendront à sa suite seront souvent appelés des « auditeurs », ou shravaka. Dans cette voie de l’arhat, il est des éléments qui empêchent l’aspirant à l’éveil, et d’autres qui lui sont favorables.

Les éléments qui empêchent l’aspirant d’avancer :

•Les dix liens qui maintiennent l’homme dans le samsara : la croyance en un soi permanent, le doute, l’attachement aux rites et aux règles (dans le bouddhisme le salut ne vient pas de l’extérieur, mais on attend une transformation venant de l‘intérieur),le désir sensuel, la malveillance, le désir de l’existence comportant une matière subtile et celui d’une existence immatérielle (souhaiter devenir un dieu, alors que seule la vie humaine permet d‘atteindre l‘éveil), l’orgueil, l’agitation et enfin l’ignorance.

•Les quatre souillures : le désir sensuel, le désir de la continuation de l’existence (lié à la croyance en un soi permanent), les vue erronées et l’ignorance.

•Les trois racines du mal : l’amour (car de l’amour vient l’attachement), la haine et l’erreur. Ce sont ces racines qui constituent le centre de la roue de al vie. Aussi longtemps qu’elles continuent d’exercer une influence sur l’homme, la roue de la vie continue à tourner, entraînant ainsi l’homme dans le tourbillon vertigineux de ce monde.
Les éléments qui aident l’homme sur la voie :

•Les cinq facultés, ou vertus, les force spirituelles qui peu à peu arrivent à dominer et à façonner tous les actes de l’homme. Ces cinq facultés sont : la foi (foi qui doit s’enraciner chaque jour davantage, foi dans les trois joyaux que sont le Bouddha, le Dharma et le Sangha, et enfin il s’agit d’une foi qui peut se comprendre par les moyens de l’intellect, rien ne trouvant hors de l’intelligence de l’homme), l’énergie ou effort juste, l’attention juste, la concentration juste (c’est l’importance accordée à la concentration qui aura permis le développement du zen en Chine et au Japon, alors que l‘importance accordée à la vertu de foi aura permis l‘essor du bouddhisme dévotionnel comme les courants amidistes), et enfin la sagesse, vertu par excellence (prajna en sanskrit), celle qui permet de réaliser les trois caractères des choses (impermanence, douleur, et insubstantialité) et mène à la réalisation de l ’état d’arhat.

•les trois éléments essentiels du noble chemin : dans cette classification l’on range les huit branches du noble octuple sentier en trois éléments, à savoir : la sagesse (qui réunit la compréhension juste et la pensée juste), la discipline morale (comprenant la parole juste, l’action juste et le moyen d’existence juste) et enfin la discipline mentale, réunissant l’effort juste, l’attention juste et la concentration juste).
Telle est la voie de l’arhat, et il faut chercher l’origine du bouddhisme des sectes dans les différences d’interprétation de cet idéal de l’arhat.

poson dans Non classé

le bouddhisme des sectes

Comme on peut le voir, l’idéal de l’arhat est particulièrement exigeant et demande beaucoup d’efforts, étant même réservé à une petite élite. C’est alors qu’un moine très respecté, Mahadeva, déclara qu’un arhat n’est pas si parfait , et qu’il peut encore témoigner de l’attachement pour le monde des passions, il ira même jusqu’à dire qu’un arhat doit pratiquer sous la conduite d’un maître. En parlant ainsi, il est évident que Mahadeva voulut sortir le bouddhisme d’une certaine élite, et ses prises de position entraîna la formation d’un premier concile, le concile de Pataliputra.
•La majorité de ceux présents au Concile s’est prononcée en faveur de Mahadeva, et donc d’une libéralisation du bouddhisme. Ce groupe a été connu sous le nom de Mahasanghika. Les adversaires de cette nouvelle tendance se sont retranchés derrière l’idéal de l’arhat comme il avait toujours été compris dans le temps des « anciens ». Ce groupe a engendré de nouvelles écoles, dont le Theravada (la tradition des Anciens), et c’est la seul qui ait résisté aux ravages du temps et qui subsiste encore aujourd’hui au Sri Lanka, Cambodge, Birmanie, Thaïlande et Laos. Ainsi s’est opéré le passage du bouddhisme primitif au bouddhisme des sectes.


l’expansion du bouddhisme

•La première cause de cet élan missionnaire du bouddhisme est à chercher à l’intérieur même de la doctrine bouddhique, au moment où Bouddha a décidé de mettre en mouvement la Roue de la Loi => appel à la propagation de sa découverte). Une deuxième cause de l’élan missionnaire a été l’activité intellectuelle considérable qui a marqué le développement du bouddhisme des sectes, favorisant ainsi son épanouissement géographique.
C’est au Sri Lanka que les missionnaires bouddhistes ont connu leurs plus grands succès. Le fils d’Ashoka s’y est rendu lui-même afin d’y introduire la loi bouddhique. Le fait que cette île soit devenue un État bouddhique témoigne de l’ampleur de ce succès. La forme du bouddhisme qui s’est implantée définitivement au Sri Lanka est celle du Theravada. Depuis Sri Lanka et les côtes orientales de l’Inde, le message s’est propagé plus tard vers les pays du Sud-Est asiatique (Cambodge, Birmanie, Laos et Thaïlande). En général, dans la plupart des pays concernés, c’est le bouddhisme du Theravada qui a dominé et qui continue d’ailleurs à guider ces peuples dans leur recherche spirituelle.
Au nord-ouest de l’Inde, à Gandhara, les missionnaires bouddhistes ont rencontré la pensée grecque – et aussi l’art hellénique. Du Gandhara, la loi bouddhique s’est propagée en Asie centrale. A l’ouest, le bouddhisme n’a guère connu de succès, mais à l’Est en revanche, il est devenu le système de pensée le plus répandu. Le premier signe d’une présence bouddhique en Chine date du commencement de notre ère. Mais on peut penser que le bouddhisme avait déjà pénétré la Chine depuis deux siècles grâce aux marchands et autres réfugiés politiques. En tout cas, il existe des documents qui attestent que, dès l’an 65 après J.-C., une communauté bouddhique existait en Chine.
Avec ces quelques mots sur la première expansion du bouddhisme hors de l’Inde, on pourra avoir une idée de la zone d’influence de cette tradition, vers le IIème siècle de notre ère. Cela nous préparera à l’étude d’un mouvement tout à fait nouveau qui, après le Ier siècle de notre ère, a pris une importance considérable dans le sangha et parmi le peuple. Il s’agit du bouddhisme du Mahayana, ou du Grand Véhicule.

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Pour une bonne compréhension de l’expansion du Bouddhisme :

Image de prévisualisation YouTube 



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