Terre Pure d’Amida – 阿弥陀の浄土

Terre Pure d'Amida - 阿弥陀の浄土 dans Non classé gif1

Cette école tient son nom de la « Terre Pure »(sanscrit Sukhâvatî, chinois jingtu, japonais jôdo) sur laquelle veille Amitâbha, le « Bouddha de l’infinie lumière ». Dans le Sûtra de la Terre Pure, qui se fait au demeurant une idée fort sombre de la condition humaine, l’important n’est pas l’effort personnel (jiriki), mais la foi placée dans la puissance salvatrice d’Amitâbha (tariki) qui, dans son infinie compassion pour l’océan des êtres, a créé la Terre Pure du Paradis de l’Ouest afin que ceux qui croient en lui puissent y renaître. D’où le crédit accordé à la répétition à l’infini de la formule namo Amitâbha (namu Amida Butsu en japonais). Les premiers adeptes chinois de la Terre Pure apparaissent dès les IIIe et IVe siècles, sous l’influence de moines célèbres comme Zhi Dun et surtout Huiyuan, habituellement considéré comme le patriarche fondateur de l’école en Chine.

350px-Waterland0_002 dans Non classé

Au Japon, l’école est introduite dès le VIIe siècle, mais il faudra attendre le moine Hônen pour voir se constituer l’école de la Terre Pure, Jôdo shû. En parcourant les écritures à la recherche d’une voie aisée de libération pour les gens simples, il décide d’abandonner toute autre pratique pour entreprendre de réciter continuellement le nembutsu (récitation de namu Amida Butsu). Son disciple Shinran instituera une nouvelle branche, la Véritable Ecole de la Terre Pure, Jôdo shinshû. Plus radicale que l’école de Hônen, la Shinshû affirme l’imoprtance de montrer une confiance totale dans le voeu originel d’Amida qui apparait dans son 18e article :

« Si, lorsque je serai devenu bouddha, tous les êtres vivants des dix quartiers ayant le coeur sincère, la foi sereine et le désir de renaître en mon pays, vont jusqu’à penser à moi dix fois et n’y vont pas renaître, je ne veux pas du parfait éveil. »

S’inspirant de Shinran, elle insiste sur la seule récitation du nembutsu, sans pratiquer quoi que ce soit d’autre en vue d’acquérir des mérites, ni craindre ses fautes passées. Car ce n’est pas la formule elle-même qui efface le karma passé mais la force de la foi en Amida.

Comparé à la pratique du Zen, qui nécessite rigueur et discipline, celle d’Amida est vite apparue plus abordable pour les laics et praticable à tout moment. Selon un dicton viétnamien, « le Zen est un lion, et l’Amidisme, un lion ailé. »

Dans les faits, en Asie on pratique souvent les deux formes de bouddhisme, la Terre Pure insistant davantage sur l’aspect compassionnel qui repose sur la foi, tandis que le Zen vise à une pacification de l’esprit reposant sur un effort méditatif.



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    Namu Amida Butsu
    :o )

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